Posted on Leave a comment

Build a virtual private network with Wireguard

Wireguard is a new VPN designed as a replacement for IPSec and OpenVPN. Its design goal is to be simple and secure, and it takes advantage of recent technologies such as the Noise Protocol Framework. Some consider Wireguard’s ease of configuration akin to OpenSSH. This article shows you how to deploy and use it.

It is currently in active development, so it might not be the best for production machines. However, Wireguard is under consideration to be included into the Linux kernel. The design has been formally verified,* and proven to be secure against a number of threats.

When deploying Wireguard, keep your Fedora Linux system updated to the most recent version, since Wireguard does not have a stable release cadence.

Set the timezone

To check and set your timezone, first display current time information:


Then if needed, set the correct timezone, for example to Europe/London.

timedatectl set-timezone Europe/London

Note that your system’s real time clock (RTC) may continue to be set to UTC or another timezone.

Install Wireguard

To install, enable the COPR repository for the project and then install with dnf, using sudo:

$ sudo dnf copr enable jdoss/wireguard
$ sudo dnf install wireguard-dkms wireguard-tools

Once installed, two new commands become available, along with support for systemd:

  • wg: Configuration of wireguard interfaces
  • wg-quick Bringing up the VPN tunnels

Create the configuration directory for Wireguard, and apply a umask of 077. A umask of 077 allows read, write, and execute permission for the file’s owner (root), but prohibits read, write, and execute permission for everyone else.

mkdir /etc/wireguard
cd /etc/wireguard
umask 077

Generate Key Pairs

Generate the private key, then derive the public key from it.

$ wg genkey > /etc/wireguard/privkey
$ wg pubkey < /etc/wireguard/privkey > /etc/wireguard/publickey

Alternatively, this can be done in one go:

wg genkey | tee /etc/wireguard/privatekey | wg pubkey > /etc/wireguard/publickey

There is a vanity address generator, which might be of interest to some. You can also generate a pre-shared key to provide a level of quantum protection:

wg genpsk > psk

This will be the same value for both the server and client, so you only need to run the command once.

Configure Wireguard server and client

Both the client and server have an [Interface] option to specify the IP address assigned to the interface, along with the private keys.

Each peer (server and client) has a [Peer] section containing its respective PublicKey, along with the PresharedKey. Additionally, this block can list allowed IP addresses which can use the tunnel.


A firewall rule is added when the interface is brought up, along with enabling masquerading. Make sure to note the /24 IPv4 address range within Interface, which differs from the client. Edit the /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf file as follows, using the IP address for your server for Address, and the client IP address in AllowedIPs.

Address =, fd00:7::1/48
PostUp = firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port 51820/udp && firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-masquerade
PostDown = firewall-cmd --zone=public --remove-port 51820/udp && firewall-cmd --zone=public --remove-masquerade
ListenPort = 51820 [Peer]
PresharedKey = LpI+UivLx1ZqbzjyRaWR2rWN20tbBsOroNdNnjKLMQ=
AllowedIPs =, fd00:7::2/48

Allow forwarding of IP packets by adding the following to /etc/sysctl.conf:


Load the new settings:

$ sysctl -p

Forwarding will be preserved after a reboot.


The client is very similar to the server config, but has an optional additional entry of PersistentKeepalive set to 30 seconds. This is to prevent NAT from causing issues, and depending on your setup might not be needed. Setting AllowedIPs to will forward all traffic over the tunnel. Edit the client’s /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf file as follows, using your client’s IP address for Address and the server IP address at the Endpoint.

Address =, fd00:7::2/48
PrivateKey = <CLIENT_PRIVATE_KEY> [Peer]
PresharedKey = LpI+UivLx1ZqbzjyRaWR2rWN20tbBsOroNdNnjWKLM=
AllowedIPs =, ::/0 Endpoint = <SERVER_IP>:51820
PersistentKeepalive = 30

Test Wireguard

Start and check the status of the tunnel on both the server and client:

$ systemctl start wg-quick@wg0
$ systemctl status wg-quick@wg0

To test the connections, try the following:


Then check external IP addresses:

dig +short
dig +short -6 aaaa

* “Formally verified,” in this sense, means that the design has been proved to have mathematically correct messages and key secrecy, forward secrecy, mutual authentication, session uniqueness, channel binding, and resistance against replay, key compromise impersonation, and denial of server attacks.

Photo by Black Zheng on Unsplash.

Posted on Leave a comment

Use sshuttle to build a poor man’s VPN

Nowadays, business networks often use a VPN (virtual private network) for secure communications with workers. However, the protocols used can sometimes make performance slow. If you can reach reach a host on the remote network with SSH, you could set up port forwarding. But this can be painful, especially if you need to work with many hosts on that network. Enter sshuttle — which lets you set up a quick and dirty VPN with just SSH access. Read on for more information on how to use it.

The sshuttle application was designed for exactly the kind of scenario described above. The only requirement on the remote side is that the host must have Python available. This is because sshuttle constructs and runs some Python source code to help transmit data.

Installing sshuttle

The sshuttle application is packaged in the official repositories, so it’s easy to install. Open a terminal and use the following command with sudo:

$ sudo dnf install sshuttle

Once installed, you may find the manual page interesting:

$ man sshuttle

Setting up the VPN

The simplest case is just to forward all traffic to the remote network. This isn’t necessarily a crazy idea, especially if you’re not on a trusted local network like your own home. Use the -r switch with the SSH username and the remote host name:

$ sshuttle -r username@remotehost

However, you may want to restrict the VPN to specific subnets rather than all network traffic. (A complete discussion of subnets is outside the scope of this article, but you can read more here on Wikipedia.) Let’s say your office internally uses the reserved Class A subnet and the reserved Class B subnet The command above becomes:

$ sshuttle -r username@remotehost

This works great for working with hosts on the remote network by IP address. But what if your office is a large network with lots of hosts? Names are probably much more convenient — maybe even required. Never fear, sshuttle can also forward DNS queries to the office with the –dns switch:

$ sshuttle --dns -r username@remotehost

To run sshuttle like a daemon, add the -D switch. This also will send log information to the systemd journal via its syslog compatibility.

Depending on the capabilities of your system and the remote system, you can use sshuttle for an IPv6 based VPN. You can also set up configuration files and integrate it with your system startup if desired. If you want to read even more about sshuttle and how it works, check out the official documentation. For a look at the code, head over to the GitHub page.

Photo by Kurt Cotoaga on Unsplash.