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Fedora - How to Build a Netboot Server, Part 3

#1
How to Build a Netboot Server, Part 3

The How to Build a Netboot Server, Part 1 article provided a minimal iPXE boot script for your netboot image. Many users probably have a local operating system that they want to use in addition to the netboot image. But switching bootloaders using the typical workstation’s BIOS can be cumbersome. This part of the series shows how to set up some more complex iPXE configurations. These allow the end user to easily choose which operating system they want to boot. They also let the system administrator manage the boot menus from a central server.

An interactive iPXE boot menu


The commands below redefine the netboot image’s boot.cfg as an interactive iPXE boot menu with a 5 second countdown timer:

$ MY_FVER=29 $ MY_KRNL=$(ls -c /fc$MY_FVER/lib/modules | head -n 1) $ MY_DNS1=192.0.2.91 $ MY_DNS2=192.0.2.92 $ MY_NAME=server-01.example.edu $ MY_EMAN=$(echo $MY_NAME | tr '.' "\n" | tac | tr "\n" '.' | cut -b -${#MY_NAME}) $ MY_ADDR=$(host -t A $MY_NAME | awk '{print $4}') $ cat << END > $HOME/esp/linux/boot.cfg #!ipxe set timeout 5000 :menu menu iPXE Boot Menu item --key 1 lcl 1. Microsoft Windows 10 item --key 2 f$MY_FVER 2. RedHat Fedora $MY_FVER choose --timeout \${timeout} --default lcl selected || goto shell set timeout 0 goto \${selected} :failed echo boot failed, dropping to shell... goto shell :shell echo type 'exit' to get the back to the menu set timeout 0 shell goto menu :lcl exit :f$MY_FVER kernel --name kernel.efi \${prefix}/vmlinuz-$MY_KRNL initrd=initrd.img ro ip=dhcp rd.peerdns=0 nameserver=$MY_DNS1 nameserver=$MY_DNS2 root=/dev/disk/by-path/ip-$MY_ADDR:3260-iscsi-iqn.$MY_EMAN:fc$MY_FVER-lun-1 netroot=iscsi:$MY_ADDR::::iqn.$MY_EMAN:fc$MY_FVER console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8 audit=0 selinux=0 quiet initrd --name initrd.img \${prefix}/initramfs-$MY_KRNL.img boot || goto failed END

The above menu has five sections:

  • menu defines the actual menu that will be shown on the screen.
  • failed notifies the user that something went wrong and drops the user to a shell so they can troubleshot the problem.
  • shell provides an interactive command prompt. You can reach it either by pressing the Esc key while at the boot menu or if the “boot” command returns with a failure code.
  • lcl contains a single command that tells iPXE to exit and return control back to the BIOS. Whatever you want to boot by default (e.g. the workstation’s local hard drive) must be listed as the next boot item right after iPXE in your workstation’s BIOS.
  • f29 contains the same netboot code used earlier but with the final exit replaced with goto failed.

Copy the updated boot.cfg from your $HOME/esp/linux directory out to the ESPs of all your client systems. If all goes well, you should see results similar to the image below:

A server hosted boot menu


Another feature you can add to the netboot server is the ability to manage all the client boot menus from one central location. This feature can be especially useful when rolling out a new version of the OS. It lets you perform a sort of atomic transaction to switch all clients over to the new OS after you’ve copied the new kernel and initramfs out to the ESPs of all the clients.

Install Mojolicious:

$ sudo -i # dnf install -y perl-Mojolicious

Define the “bootmenu” app:

# mkdir /opt/bootmenu # cat << END > /opt/bootmenu/bootmenu.pl #!/usr/bin/env perl use Mojolicious::Lite; use Mojolicious::Plugins; plugin 'Config'; get '/menu'; app->start; END # chmod 755 /opt/bootmenu/bootmenu.pl

Define the configuration file for the bootmenu app:

# cat << END > /opt/bootmenu/bootmenu.conf { hypnotoad => { listen => ['http://*:80'], pid_file => '/run/bootmenu/bootmenu.pid', } } END

This is an extremely simple Mojolicious application that listens on port 80 and only answers to /menu requests. If you want a quick introduction to what Mojolicious can do, run man Mojolicious::Guides::Growing to view the manual. Use the Q key to quit the manual.

Move boot.cfg over to our netboot app as a template named menu.html.ep:

# mkdir /opt/bootmenu/templates # mv $HOME/esp/linux/boot.cfg /opt/bootmenu/templates/menu.html.ep

Define a systemd service to manage the bootmenu app:

# cat << END > /etc/systemd/system/bootmenu.service [Unit] Description=Serves iPXE Menus over HTTP After=network-online.target [Service] Type=forking DynamicUser=true RuntimeDirectory=bootmenu PIDFile=/run/bootmenu/bootmenu.pid ExecStart=/usr/bin/hypnotoad /opt/bootmenu/bootmenu.pl ExecReload=/usr/bin/hypnotoad /opt/bootmenu/bootmenu.pl AmbientCapabilities=CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE KillMode=process [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target END

Add an exception for the HTTP service to the local firewall and start the bootmenu service:

# firewall-cmd --add-service http # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent # systemctl enable bootmenu.service # systemctl start bootmenu.service

Test it with wget:

$ sudo dnf install -y wget $ MY_BOOTMENU_SERVER=server-01.example.edu $ wget -q -O - http://$MY_BOOTMENU_SERVER/menu

The above command should output something similar to the following:

#!ipxe set timeout 5000 :menu menu iPXE Boot Menu item --key 1 lcl 1. Microsoft Windows 10 item --key 2 f29 2. RedHat Fedora 29 choose --timeout ${timeout} --default lcl selected || goto shell set timeout 0 goto ${selected} :failed echo boot failed, dropping to shell... goto shell :shell echo type 'exit' to get the back to the menu set timeout 0 shell goto menu :lcl exit :f29 kernel --name kernel.efi ${prefix}/vmlinuz-4.19.4-300.fc29.x86_64 initrd=initrd.img ro ip=dhcp rd.peerdns=0 nameserver=192.0.2.91 nameserver=192.0.2.92 root=/dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.0.2.158:3260-iscsi-iqn.edu.example.server-01:fc29-lun-1 netroot=iscsi:192.0.2.158::::iqn.edu.example.server-01:fc29 console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8 audit=0 selinux=0 quiet initrd --name initrd.img ${prefix}/initramfs-4.19.4-300.fc29.x86_64.img boot || goto failed

Now that the boot menu server is working, rebuild the ipxe.efi bootloader with an init script that points to it.

First, update the init.ipxe script created in part one of this series:

$ MY_BOOTMENU_SERVER=server-01.example.edu $ cat << END > $HOME/ipxe/init.ipxe #!ipxe dhcp || exit set prefix file:///linux chain http://$MY_BOOTMENU_SERVER/menu || exit END

Now, rebuild the boot loader:

$ cd $HOME/ipxe/src $ make clean $ make bin-x86_64-efi/ipxe.efi EMBED=../init.ipxe

Copy the updated bootloader to your ESP:

$ cp $HOME/ipxe/src/bin-x86_64-efi/ipxe.efi $HOME/esp/efi/boot/bootx64.efi

After you’ve copied the updated bootloader to all your clients, you can make future updates to the boot menu simply by editing /opt/bootmenu/templates/menu.html.ep and running:

$ sudo systemctl restart bootmenu.service

Making further changes


If the boot menu server is working properly, you’ll longer need the the boot.cfg file on your client systems.

For example, re-add the Fedora 28 image to the boot menu:

$ sudo -i # MY_FVER=28 # MY_KRNL=$(ls -c /fc$MY_FVER/lib/modules | head -n 1) # MY_DNS1=192.0.2.91 # MY_DNS2=192.0.2.92 # MY_NAME=$(</etc/hostname) # MY_EMAN=$(echo $MY_NAME | tr '.' "\n" | tac | tr "\n" '.' | cut -b -${#MY_NAME}) # MY_ADDR=$(host -t A $MY_NAME | awk '{print $4}') # cat << END >> /opt/bootmenu/templates/menu.html.ep :f$MY_FVER kernel --name kernel.efi \${prefix}/vmlinuz-$MY_KRNL initrd=initrd.img ro ip=dhcp rd.peerdns=0 nameserver=$MY_DNS1 nameserver=$MY_DNS2 root=/dev/disk/by-path/ip-$MY_ADDR:3260-iscsi-iqn.$MY_EMAN:fc$MY_FVER-lun-1 netroot=iscsi:$MY_ADDR::::iqn.$MY_EMAN:fc$MY_FVER console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8 audit=0 selinux=0 quiet initrd --name initrd.img \${prefix}/initramfs-$MY_KRNL.img boot || goto failed END # sed -i "/item --key 2/a item --key 3 f$MY_FVER 3. RedHat Fedora $MY_FVER" /opt/bootmenu/templates/menu.html.ep # systemctl restart bootmenu.service

If all goes well, your clients should see results similar to the image below the next time they boot:

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